Location and Features Mining in Ruabon The Beginnings The Parish Ruabon Grammar School The Williams Wynn Family The Newbridge
Ruabon Guide circa 1925
RUABON is usually associated, in the minds of the travelling public, with coal mines and the manufacture of bricks. But, although the village is deservedly noted for the high quality of its bricks and terra-cotta, it ought to be better known for the beauty of its surroundings, and as a delightful holiday resort.
Ruabon Station is an important junction on the Great Western Main Line from Paddington to Liverpool, and is within easy distance of Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham, and other densely populated areas. The village is delightfully situated at the entrance to the beautiful Dee Valley - Llangollen is but six miles away. Three main roads cross each other near the ancient Parish Church; that from Chester entering from the north, the Shrewsbury road from the south, and the road from Whitchurch and Overton from the east, whilst a fourth road, excellently engineered, leads to the Ruabon moors. Thus Ruabon is easy of access, both to railway travellers and motorists.
The modern spelling of the name, Ruabon, is an English corruption of the ancient Welsh name for the locality, Rhiwabon, which signifies "the hill slope of St. Mabon." Another spelling, Rhuabon, is rapidly falling into disuse, being mainly used by the older inhabitants of the district.
The ancient parish consisted of the ten townships of Belan, Bodylltyn, Christionydd Kenrick, Coed Christionydd, Dynhinlle Ucha, Dynhinlle Isa, Hafod, Moreton Anglicorum, Moreton Below (Offa's Dyke), and Rhyddallt: but in 1894 it was subdivided into the four civil parishes of Ruabon, Cefn, Penycae and Rhos, with populiltions of four, seven, three and fifteen thousand, respectively. The four civil parishes coincide very nearly with the modern ecclesiastical division of the ancient parish into Ruabon, Rhosymedre, Penycae and Rhosllanerchrugog, each with its Parish Church.
The chief attractions in Ruabon are the ancient Parish Church, and Wynnstay, the ancestral home of the Wynns.
The Parish Church, which stands boldly on the top of a little knoll, "the hill slope of Mabon," has a history which dates back to the dim and distant past. Certain portions of the West wall, especially that portion on the south side of the Tower, are undoubtedly the remains of the first stone church of the parish, and date from the end of the fourth or early years of the fifth century. Built into this wall is a large stone slab with an early Celtic ornament in the form of a Cross. Antiquaries say that this stone is one of the earliest examples of Celtic Christian Art, and that it is probably of the third or fourth century, but may be even earlier.
The Church was originally dedicated to St. Mabon, the founder of the"lIan," or first Christian settlement in the district. As already indicated, it is from this Mabon, a saint of the early 6th century, that the village takes its name - Rhiw-Fabon. The present building dates from the 12th century, the Tower being added in the 14th. Originally the Church consisted of a Chancel and Nave, with north and south aisles and a western tower. Later in the 14th century the Chancel was extended to its present length, and probably later still north and south Chapels were erected. These additions were made during the tenure of the vicariate by the abbots of Valle Crucis Abbey, who had impropriated the livings of Ruabon, Llangollen, Wrexham, Chirk and many other parishes in their immediate neighbourhood. As was their usual custom, the monks re-dedicated each of the churches to the Virgin Mary. Many of the churches which came into their possession have reverted to their original dedication, e.g. St. Giles at Wrexham, and St. Collen at Llangollen, but Ruabon Church is still known, improperly we think, as St. Mary's rather than St. Mabon's Church.
The Elizabethan poet, Thomas Churchyard, writing in his "Worthines of Wales" in 1587, gives in his quaint manner, a very interesting description of the Church as it was in his day.
"There stands on little mount
Churchyard also notices the rich east window of painted glass,-
The trimmest glasse that may in window bee,
Not a trace of the Jesse Window now remains, and the tomb has been removed from "amid the queere" to the north Chapel.
An Early-English doorway in the south wall has been filled in, and is cut into by a later buttress.
A thorough "restoration" of the church was made in the year 1840, and, like so many modern restorations, resulted in many of its ancient features disappearing. During this restoration, a most interesting relic of medieval times was dis- covered, a wall painting or fresco of the 14th century, depicting the "Works of Mercy." This ancient painting, originally the work of one of the monks of Valle Crucis Abbey, had been covered by plaster as the result of the visit of Thomas Cromwell's inquisitors during the Reformation period. The painting was restored at the expense of Chevalier Lloyd of Clochfaen and Plas Madoc. It is now much faded, but it is still worthy of close inspection. It may be found on the south wall near the organ.
Another interesting object in the church is the magnificent alabaster altar tomb of John ap Ellis Eyton (died 1536) and his wife, Elizabeth Calveley (died 1534). This tomb is referred to by Churchyard (already quoted) as "lying amid the queere." It is now in the north Chapel. John ap Ellis Eyton is known to have fought at the battle of Bosworth (1485) on the side of Henry Richmond, afterwards Henry VII. He was rewarded by the victor with large estates in Rhiwabon, which are now incorporated in the Wynnstay Estates. The tomb, although much mutilated, is noted by the Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments as one of the finest examples of Medieval altar tombs in the Principality, and well worthy of preservation; There are two other imposing monuments in the North Chapel. The larger records the death of Henry Wynn, and his son and daughter-in-law. Henry Wynn, died 1671 at the age of 69, was the tenth son of old Sir John Wynn of Gwydir, whose soul is tormented (so says local tradition) in the boiling waters of the Swallow Falls near Bettws y Coed. Henry is represented standing with his arms outstretched in blessing the kneeling figures of his son, Sir John Wynn, and his daughter-in-law, Jane Eyton. Sir John Wynn died in 1718, aged 91, and Jane Wynn in 1675, aged 45. Both are buried in the church.
A beautiful monument, by Nollikins, to the memory of Lady Henrietta Williams-Wynn (died 1769, aged 21) also stands in the North Chapel.
The South Chapel contains a recumbent effigy of the first Sir Watkin, by Rysback, with a Latin epitaph by Dr. King.
Other interesting monuments in the Church include :- on the south wall.
(1) A beautiful inlaid brass tablet to the memory of Jenkyn Lloyd of Plas Madoc and Clochfaen, who died in 1766, and other members of this ancient family.
(2) An artistic marble monument to Charlotte Eva Edwards wife of Canon Wood Edwards, (brother of the Archbishop of Wales).
(3) A marble tablet to the memory of Dr. William Jones, a fine surgeon and a noted character of the last century.
(4) An embossed copper tablet to the memory of Engineer-Captain Charles G. Taylor, who was killed in H.M.S. Tiger in 1915.
On the west wall.
(1) A marble scroll to the memory of the Rev. E. M. Roderick, Vicar.
(2) A marble tablet to the memory of Robert Lloyd, Parish Clerk for 40 years.
and on the south wall, a marble tablet to the memory of Phillip Murless who died in the South African War.
Two beautiful Candelabra in the Nave, one the gift of David son of Edward Lloyd of Cefn y Fedw in 1678, and the other the gift of Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn and of Thomas Trevor, Vicar, in 1781, were reconstructed for the use of gas in 1888.
There is a peal of six bells, which were recast in 1768.
The beautiful East Window (subject, The Crucifixion) is in memory of Marie Nesta Williams-Wynn, younger daughter of the late Sir Watkin. .She died at the age of 15. The Clock in the tower is also a memorial to her.
There are two old chests in the church, one which stands outside the vestry door, has a small brass tablet with the inscription
"Within this chest are writings layde .
Its date is probably 1637. The other, a strong oak chest completely encased in iron, is in the vestry. The date is 1709.
The Communion Plate is exceedingly beautiful. It consists of an exquisite flagon of Chippendale design, two patens and two cups with fluted floral leaves. The flagon was given by Sir Watkin in 1679, and remade in 1776. The cups bear the inscription "the gift of G. Matthewes, Citizen and Vintner of London, son of Edward ap Edward ap Madoge of this parish 1616, remade 1676." Another cup (1753) was given to the daughter church of Rhosllanerchrugog. Recently (1924) a smaller communion set, for use when the number of communicants is small, was presented to the church by Mrs. Lawton Roberts in memory of her husband, Dr. Richard Lawton Roberts, for many years Churchwarden of the parish.
A magnificent Lych Gate has been erected as a memorial to Men of Ruabon who fell in the Great War. Their names are engraven on two marble slabs inside the gate. There was an earlier Lych Gate, which disappeared at the "restoration."
A mural tablet to the memory of Dr. David Powel, a famous vicar of Rhiwabon in Elizabethan times, formerly existed, but now no trace of it remains. He collaborated with Bishop Morgan in the translation of the Bible into Welsh, and wrote a "Historie of Cambria." He was the founder of the Grammar School.
The Churches in the daughter parishes of Rhosymedre, Penycae, and Rhos are modern and have no outstanding features.
Wynnstay Park. The principal entrance to the park is the one in Park Street, near the Church. As soon as we enter the gates there lies before us a fine avenue of more than a mile in length, the first part of which is on level ground : then comes a steep incline. This produces an optical illusion, for stand at which end you will, the other seems to ascend.
Just before the ascent, to the left of the roadway, stands "Sir John Wynn's Oak," said to be one of the largest in the kingdom. It is 36 feet in circumference 18 inches from the ground; It is now known locally as the Queen's Oak.
Shortly after entering the Park, on the right, is the entrance to the Bath Grounds. The path leads over a rustic bridge to the Bath, which gives the grounds their name. A fine Doric Column, 100 feet high, erected as a tribute of maternal affection to the second Sir Watkin, stands a short distance beyond the Bath. Visitors are allowed to climb the spiral staircase to its summit. The view of the surrounding country to be had from the head of the column, on a clear day, is very fine. On leaving the Bath Grounds, Wynnstay immediately appears in sight, with its little lake in front. The walk may be extended past the Hall to Nant y Belan Tower. From the Tower the view to be obtained is extensive and beautiful.
The history of Ruabon is intimately connected with the House of Wynnstay, formerly known as Rhiwabon. Only a very brief outline can be given in this small handbook.
As already indicated, there was a Christian settlement in the fourth century, and probably earlier still. The township names of Coed Christionydd, and Christionydd Cynwrig (or Kenrick), are very suggestive in this particular .
St. Collen, Abbot and Confessor, a saint of the 7th Century, the founder of the Church at Llangollen, extended his influence over a wider area, and revived the drooping Church in Rhiwabon, which had suffered terribly at the hands of the "pagan Saxon" after the battle of Chester, when 3,000 monks of the neighbouring abbey of Bangor-is-y-Coed were massacred.
Madoc ap Gruffydd Maelor, Lord of Dinas Bran, had his residence where Wynnstay now stands. He was the founder of Valle Crucis Abbey (1200). The house was then known as Rhiwabon. He left his Ruabon estates to his second son, Maredudd ap Madog, who thus became Lord of Rhiwabon. The name of the neighbouring hamlet of Rhos Madoc, and the estate of Plas Madoc, serve to keep in memory the connection of the village with the Royal tribe of Gruffydd ap Madoc Maelor. -The estates eventually came into the possession of John ap Ellis Eyton, (whose tomb lies in the Parish Church), being the reward of a grateful sovereign (Henry VII) for services rendered at the Battle of Bosworth. His own estate of Eyton adjoined that of Rhiwabon. The family name survives in Park Eyton, Eyton village, Eyton House, and Eyton Bank. A descendant changed the name of the house to Wattstay, from its situation on Watt's Dyke. Sir John Wynn, grandson of old Sir John Wynn, of Gwydir, died in 1718, aged 91. He left his Wynnstay estates to his kinsman, Watkin Williams, on condition that he assumed the surname of Wynn. This Watkin Williams was a descendant of Sir William Williams, Speaker to the House of Commons. We thus account for the name which is a household word throughout Wales, Sir Watkin Williams Wynn. This Sir Watkin was a keen Jacobite, and marched towards Derby with a large number of followers to assist the Young Pretender. When nearing the town, news was brought to him of the failure of the rising. A messenger was sent to Wynnstay, and all incriminating documents destroyed. He died as the result of a fall from his horse in 1749. The second Sir Watkin (the 4th baronet) was a great patron of music and the stage, the theatrical performances in the great hall at Wynnstay in the latter quarter of the 18th century "were especially distinguished for their excellence." He died in 1789. His mother erected an obelisk, commonly called "The Column," in the Bath Grounds, for which Lord Grenville, his brother-in-law, wrote the inscription :-
"Filio optimo mater ehu superstes."
The third Sir Watkin was the one who took his Yeomanry Corps of "Ancient Britons" over to Ireland, and rendered conspicuous assistance in quelling the unhappy rebellion of '98. A feast in honour of victory was held in Ireland and Sir Watkin was only saved from a treacherous death by poison by the timely act of a serving maid who whispered to him that his wine was drugged. When the regiment was disbanded in 1800, Sir Watkin built Nant y Belan Tower, a classical mausoleum, in commemoration of the suppression of the Irish Rebellion. The names of those who fell are recorded in the cenotaph. The plinth of the mausoleum was furnished as a cottage, and in this cottage "Lucy " the Irish serving maid who had saved his life lived to a ripe old age. During the autumn of 1832, Wynnstay was honoured with a Royal visit, and Sir Watkin entertained his future Queen, the Princess Victoria. He died in 1840. The fourth Sir Watkin was known throughout the Principality by the familiar sobriquet of "Prince in Wales," which speaks for itself. The distinctive title "Sir Watkin" has been preferred by at least three members of this distinguished family to a modern peerage. In thanking his constituents for returning him for the seventh time to Parliament (in 1868), the late baronet remarked " It is a position which for more than a century and a half has been the most prized distinction of my family: it was preferred by my great grandfather to an earldom, by my father to an earldom, by myself to a peerage."
In the early days of March, 1858, a disastrous fire occurred, the house gutted, and the fine collection of rare Welsh MSS. destroyed.
The present baronet succeeded his uncle (the sixth baronet), in 1885. By his marriage with his cousin, the eldest daughter of Sir Watkin, in the previous year, the ancient line of Gwydir and Owain Gwynedd and the Cefn branch of the parent stem of Cunedda Wledig, so long divergent, were once more reunited, his mother being the daughter of John Lloyd of Cefn (St. Asaph), a descendant of Cunedda.
In 1912, the parishioners of Ruabon presented to Sir Watkin's heir the finely wrought iron gates at the entrance to the Park, in commemoration of his coming of age.
In the year 1811, the high-way past the Church towards Shrewsbury was raised about 30 feet in order to overcome the steep descent to the bridge crossing the stream, and a new bridge constructed about 50 yards higher up the stream. (The old bridge may still be seen by looking over the retaining wall on the south side of the new road) .The oldest portion of the village, called Tan Lan (or under the church), is below the level of this road on the other side of the stream. On the north side of the road, under the shelter of the churchyard wall, stands an ancient Round Tower, formerly used as a "lock-up," but now converted into a workshop.
Educational Facilities. The educational facilities of the district are very fine indeed. Elementary education is provided for in (1) National Schools at Ruabon, Rhosymedre, Penycae, Penylan and Rhos. (2). Council Schools in Ruabon, Cefn, Penycae, Acrefair, Ponkey, Johnstown and Rhos, together with a Higher Elementary School at Rhos. There are two Secondary Schools, both situated in Ruabon - the Ruabon County Secondary School for Girls, and the Ruabon Grammar School.
The. Ruabon County Secondary School for Girls was opened In September 1922 by Dame Margaret Lloyd George, and is governed by the Denbighshire Education Authority.
The Ruabon Grammar School is one of the old Public Schools, and was founded about the year 1575 by the Revd. Dr. David Powel, D.D., Vicar of Rhiwabon. Churchyard in his description of the parish, written in 1578, refers to the School by the Church. The Charity Commissioners wrongly fixed upon 1632 as the date of the foundation, the earliest endowment they were able to trace having been a bequest of land (in 1633) , to the " old Grammar School in the parish of Rhiwabon." Dr. Powel assisted Bishop Morgan in the translation of the Bible into Welsh (published 1588), and, like several of his collaborators in this work, founded a School in his parish. He died in 1598, and is buried in Ruabon Church. Large additional endowments of the School were made by Vicar Robinson (1675-1706), by his will, dated 1703, and provision for the education and clothing of six Blue Coat Boys.
These boys were to "appear abroad" in their "blue coats and caps, stockings and shoes" and to have free education in the Grammar School. This provision of his will was repealed in 1872, and Vicar Robinson's Prizes instituted in its stead. In 1858 an exchange was effected whereby the old Grammar School, House and garden were conveyed to Sir W. W. Wynn, and the School transferred to its present situation near Offa's Dyke, new school buildings and the Head Master's house being erected, with a playing field of two acres adjoining. In 1895 the School was still further enlarged and brought up-to-date by the addition of new buildings including Laboratories for the teaching of Science. The Denbighshire Education Authority intend shortly to still further enlarge the premises. The playing field (10 acres in extent), is a short distance from the School, and adjoins the Penycae Road. Pupils are prepared for the Universities, the learned professions, and are also given a sound education on modern lines. There are about 220 pupils in the School, Boarders and Day-boys. The Headmaster is the Revd. D. Bowen, M.Sc.
Places of Worship. Some information regarding the history and structure of Ruabon Parish Church has already been given in this Guide. The Church stands in a commanding position in the centre of the village. To meet the needs of the outlying hamlet of Penylan, a fine Church was erected by the generosity of Mr. Ormerod, of Penylan.
Accommodation. Visitors to the village will find ample accommodation at the Wynnstay Arms Hotel, the Bridge Hotel, or at the boarding and apartment houses.
Government. The village is governed by a Parish Council, consisting of fifteen members, with Sir Watkin as Chairman. The highways, drainage, sanitary arrangements, etc., are under the direct control of the Wrexham Rural District Council, of which Sir Watkin is also Chairman.
Water Supply. The Ruabon Water Company have a large reservoir situated on the slopes of Ruabon Moor, above the village of Penycae; The water is of excellent quality, and the supply ample.
The industries of the district are extremely important. All the large works, however, are on the outskirts, and in no way interfere with the natural beauty of the locality. Ruabon has a world-wide reputation for the quality of its bricks and terra cotta. The largest and most important works in North Wales for the manufacture of all clay building materials, except common building bricks, are situated at Ruabon. The principal manufacturers of building material are: (1) the Ruabon Brick and Terra Cotta Co., Ltd., who produce Ruabon red bricks and terra cotta goods of all descriptions, flooring quarries (exported in large quantities to U.S.A.), and fire bricks. Their works are situated on the Gardden and Tatham estates. (2) Messrs. J . C. Edwards' works, situated in the Trefynant district, produce facing bricks of all descriptions, glazed bricks, engineering bricks, roofing tiles and glazed tiles. (3) The Hafod Brick Works in the Johnstown district (Dennis & Co.), also manufacture all kinds of building material of high quality.
The Graesser-Monsanto Chemical Works, situated in Acrefair, are noted for the fine quality of their goods. Among the company's celebrated products are carbolic acid, cresylic acid and the pure cresols, together with saccharin- Monsanto, and Aspirin.
Hughes & Lancaster's Engineering Works at Acrefair manufacture the celebrated "Shone" pneumatic automatic Sewage ejector, used in many countries, for the raising of unscreened sewage without the need of suction pits or screening chambers.
Recreations and Sporting Clubs.
Ruabon is well provided in the matter of facilities for sport. The Cricket Club, established about 1850, have a well equipped ground in Wynnstay Park, near the Home Farm.
Bowlers will find a splendid Green at the Wynnstay Hotel, also in Wynnstay Park (James' Lodge), a fine Green, laid out by Sir Watkin for the use of members of the Constitutional Club. There is a Crown Green at the Bowling Green Inn at Rhosymedre.
The Cefn and District Co-operative Society have recently laid out splendid Bowling Greens and Tennis Courts at Rhosymedre. Small charges are made for the use of the Bowling Greens and Tennis Courts.
Ruabon Hockey Club play on the Vicarage Field. There are numerous Football Clubs in the district, the most famous being " The Druids," which once figured in the semi-final tie for the English Cup.
There are many places of interest within easy reach of Ruabon.
(a) Erbistock Ferry (old name, Yr Bistawg). This is a charming spot on the river Dee, about 3 miles from Ruabon. Take the third turning on the right on the Overton road, and follow the road to the river. Refreshments may be had at the inn, the " Erbistock Boat."
(b) Eglwyseg Manor House. This is a fine example of an Elizabethan Manor House. Follow the Penycae road to the moors, pass through the mountain gate, and a path over the moors may be found to the Eglwyseg.
Tradition states that Queen Elizabeth slept here on one occasion, and it is known to have been one of the residences of Colonel Jones, the regicide, and brother- in-law of Cromwell.
(c) Bangor-is-y-Coed is about five miles from Ruabon. A famous monastery existed here in the fifth and sixth centuries. The battle of Chester was fought near at hand, and the monks of Bangor massacred.
(d) Pontcysyllte Aqueduct. Is situated below Trevor station. It was built by Telford to carry the Shropshire Union Canal across the Dee. It is a fine bridge of 19 arches, 1,007 feet long, and the height of the piers above low water in the river is 121 feet.
(e) The Viaduct. The G. W .R. Viaduct crosses the valley of the Dee below Cefn station. Its length is 1531 feet, its height is 148 feet, the number of arches 19, and the span of each 60 feet.
(f) Valle Crucis Abbey, although several miles from Ruabon, may easily be visited in the space of an afternoon's excursion. It was founded in 1200 by Madog ap Gryffydd Maelor, who had a residence where Wynnstay now stands.
(g) The Pillar of Eliseg, or more properly " The Cross of Eliseg," is a short distance beyond the Abbey, and gives to the district its name, the Valley of the Cross. The Cross was erected in the latter part of the 8th century. Cromwell's soldiers threw it down in the middle of the 17th century, and it was re-erected by Trevor Lloyd, of Trevor Hall, at the end of the 18th century. It is one of the earliest inscribed stones in the country.
(h) Pentre Bychan Hall and Plas Cadwgan, two interesting old houses, are well worthy of a visit. They lie about midway between Ruabon and Wrexham. A fine tumulus stands in the courtyard of Plas Cadwgan, now a farm house.
Places of Historical or Archaeological Interest.
Offa's Dyke (or Clawdd Offa). Offa, King of Mercia, in order to keep the old Welsh in subjection, is said to have built a strong rampart from the Wye to the Dee, in the latter half of the eighth century. In the neighbourhood of Ruabon it is still in a good state of preservation. Portions may still be seen in Wynnstay Park, near the Home Farm, but the finest portion stretches from the Great Western Railway, near Wynnstay Colliery, as far as the Grammar School, where it forms the boundary of the school field. The vallum, or rampart, rises to a height of about 14 feet above the level of the adjoining field, and the fosse, or ditch, is about 10 feet deep.
Watt's Dyke lies about three-quarters of a mile to the east of Offa's Dyke. The name probably a corruption of the "Watch Dyke" It runs parallel to the dyke of Offa. It has been suggested that the land lying between the two dykes was neutral territory, a kind of No Man's Land, where the Saxons and Welsh could meet for purposes of trade. This dyke begins near Basingwerk Abbey on the mouth of the Dee, and traverses the country southward as far as Oswestry. The Ruabon portion is in a fairly good state of preservation.
Gardden (Gaer Ddinas - the fortified camp). An ancient British Camp situated on high ground about 200 yards to the west of Offa's Dyke. This is an oval enclosure, about 3 acres in extent, protected by three well defined ramparts and ditches for the greater portion of its circumference on the south and eastern sides; the fortifications of the other portion have disappeared, a roadway having been made in what was formerly the fosse or ditch. A fierce battle was fought near by in the year 1167, by the Welsh, against the English and Normans, the English army being defeated with great slaughter. The Welsh leader was Prince Owain Cyfeiliog, who composed a famous poem, " Hirlas Owain," to celebrate the victory. A small triangular plot of ground, bounded on two sides by two small streams, and on the third by the Wrexham road, and directly opposite its junction with the road from Offa's Dyke, is traditionally pointed out as the burial place of three Welsh chieftains who were slain in the battle.
Pont Adam. This is an old bridge erected about the year 1350, by Abbot Adam, of Valle Crucis Abbey, during his tenure of the vicariate of Ruabon. Built into the side of the protecting wall of the bridge is a stone tablet recording that "Old Pont Adam was repaired in the year 1698." This Abbot Adam, is also associated with Chirk Castle in the Adam's tower, and with the west wall of Valle Crucis Abbey, which bears a Latin inscription "This wall was built by Abbot Adam, May his soul rest in happy peace."
Stone Circle. This relic of prehistoric days, known as the Eglwyseg Circle, lies on the Ruabon moors, near the escarpment overlooking Castell Dinas Bran, at Llangollen. It consists of a complete circle of large stones, and is about 20 feet in diameter. About 200 yards to the North-east stands a huge upright stone, indicating the position of sunrise on Midsummer's day.
About half a mile from the Circle, and almost on the edge of the escarpment, may be seen a Tumulus of the Bronze Age. Some years ago, a fine example of a socketed Bronze Celt, of exquisite design and workmanship, was found in the neighbourhood.
Pen Y Gaer. This ancient British camp is situated on the Garth Mountain, a short distance beyond the village. The ancient fortifications are in a fair state of preservation, and show that the camp consisted of two enclosures.
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